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Divisions

02

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Capital

Jammu (Summer), Srinagar (Winter)

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Districts

22

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Panch Constituencies

29719

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Tehsils

 82 

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Population

12,548,926  

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Male Population (in percentage)

78.26%

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Female Population (in percentage)

58.01%

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CD Blocks

143

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Educational zones

200

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Block /Zonal Resource Centres

200

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Cluster Resource Centres

800

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Panchayats

4139

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Villages

66252 (6417 inhabited)

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Habitations

23683 (Source Educational Statistics)

One of the largest states of the Indian union, Jammu and Kashmir covers an area of 2,22,236 sq km. This includes 78,114 sq km under illegal occupation of Pakistan,  5,180 sq km handed over by Pakistan to China, and 37,555 sq km under occupation of China.

The state lies between 32o 17' to 36o 58' North latitude and 73o 26' to 80o 30' East longitude. From North to South, it extends over 640 km and from East to West, 480 km. It occupies the North-West niche of India, bounded on the South by Himachal Pradesh and the Punjab, on the South West and West by Pakistan, on the North by Chinese Turkistan and a little of Russian Turkistan, and on the East by Chinese Tibet - thus strategically bordering the territories of  three countries - Russia, China, and Pakistan.

Geographically, the Jammu and Kashmir state is divided into four zones. First, the mountainous and semi- mountainous plain commonly known as Kandi belt, the second, hills including Siwalik ranges, the third, mountains of Kashmir valley, and  Pir Panjal range and the fourth is Tibetan tract of Ladakh and Kargil.

The land of snow clad mountains that shares a common boundary with Afghanistan, China and Pakistan, Jammu and Kashmir is the northernmost state of the Indian Union. Known for its extravagant natural beauty this land formed a major caravan route in the ancient times. Trade relations through these routes between China and Central Asia made it a land in-habited by various religious and cultural groups. Maharishi Kashyapa have laid the foundation of Kashmir, which was referred to as 'Kashyapamar' prior to it it is known as Satisar Lake. Jammu (Dogri: जम्मू, Urdu: جموں, Punjabi: ਜੰਮੂ), also known informally as Duggardesh, is one of the three administrative divisions within Jammu and Kashmir, the northernmost state in India. The region is not a state per se but a part of the state of Jammu & Kashmir. It consists of the districts of Doda, Kathua, Jammu, Udhampur, Rajouri, Ramban, Reasi, Samba, Kishtwar & Poonch. Most of the land is hilly or mountainous, including the Pir Panjal range which separates it from the Kashmir Valley and part of the Great Himalayas in the eastern districts of Doda and Kishtwar. The principal river is the Chenab. Jammu city, officially called Jammu-Tawi, is the largest city in Jammu and the winter capital of Jammu and Kashmir. Jammu City is also known as "City of Temples" as it has many temples and shrines, with glittering shikhars soaring into the sky, which dot the city’s skyline, creating the ambiance of a holy and peaceful Hindu city. Home to some of the most popular Hindu shrines, such as Vaishno Devi, Jammu is a pilgrimage tourism destination in India. The majority of Jammu's 5.9 million population practices Hinduism, while Islam and Sikhism enjoy a strong cultural heritage in the region. Due to relatively better infrastructure, Jammu has emerged as the main economic center of the state.Many historians and locals believe that Jammu was founded by Raja Jambu Lochan in the 14th century BC. During one of his hunting campaigns, he reached the Tawi River where he saw a goat and a lion drinking water at the same place. Having satisfied their thirst, the animals went their own ways. The Raja was amazed, abandoned the idea of hunting and returned to his companions. Recounting what he had seen, he exclaimed that this place, where a lion and a lamb could drink water side by side, was a place of peace and tranquility. The Raja commanded that a palace be built at this place and a city was founded around it. This city became known as Jambu-Nagar, which then later changed into Jammu. Jambu Lochan was the brother of Raja Bahu Lochan who constructed a fort on the bank of river Tawi. Bahu Fort is a historical place in Jammu. The city name figures in the ancient book Mahabharata. Excavation near Akhnoor, 20 miles (32 km) from Jammu city, provides evidence that Jammu was once part of the Harappan civilization. Remains from the Maurya, Kushan, Kushanshahs and Gupta periods have also been found in Jammu. After 480 AD the area was dominated by the Hephthalites and ruled from Kapisa and Kabul. They were succeeded by the Kushano-Hephthalite dynasty from 565 to 670 AD, then by the Shahi from 670 to the early 11th century, when the Shahi were destroyed by the Ghaznavids. Jammu is also mentioned in accounts of the campaigns of Timur. The area witnessed changes of control following invasions by Mughals and Sikhs, before finally falling under the control of the British. Upon the Partition of India, it became part of India following the Kashmir war. Once a seat of the Dogra Rajput dynasty, Jammu came under the control of Maharaja Ranjit Singh Ji in the 19 century and became a part of the Sikh Empire. Maharaja Ranjit Singh soon appointed Gulab Singh Ji the ruler of Jammu. After the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Punjab, The Sikh Empire was defeated by the British after Maharaja Duleep Singh was taken by the British to England under the orders of The Company. Not having the resources to occupy the hills immediately after annexing parts of Punjab, the British recognized Maharaja Gulab Singh, the strongest ruler north of the Sutlej River, as ruler of Jammu and Kashmir. Maharaja Gulab Singh is thus credited as the founder of Jammu and Kashmir. During the partition of India the ruler was Maharaja Hari Singh and he along with all the other princes was given the choice according to the instruments of partition of India in 1947, to freely accede to either India or Pakistan, or to remain independent. the princes were however advised to accede to the contiguous dominion, taking into consideration the geographical and ethnic issues. Kashmir (Balti, Gojri, Poonchi/Chibhali, Dogri: कश्मीर; Kashmiri: कॅशीर, کٔشِیر; Ladakhi: ཀཤམིར; Uyghur: كەشمىر; Shina: کشمیر) is the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term Kashmir geographically denoted only the valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal mountain range. Today Kashmir denotes a larger area that includes the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir (the Kashmir valley, Jammu and Ladakh), the Pakistan Illegally occupied Gilgit-Baltistan and the Ghulam Kashmir provinces, and the Chinese-occupied regions of Aksai Chin and Trans-Karakoram Tract. In the first half of the first millennium, the Kashmir region became an important center of Hinduism and later of Buddhism; later still, in the ninth century, Kashmir Shaivism arose.[1] In 1349, Shah Mir became the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir and inaugurated the Salatin-i-Kashmir or Swati dynasty.For the next five centuries, Muslim monarchs ruled Kashmir, including the Mughals, who ruled from 1526 until 1751, then the Afghan Durrani Empire that ruled from 1747 until 1820.That year, the Sikhs under Ranjit Singh, annexed Kashmir.[2] In 1846, upon the purchase of the region from the British under the Treaty of Amritsar, the Dogras—under Gulab Singh—became the new rulers. Dogra Rule, under the paramountcy (or tutelage) of the British Crown, lasted until 1947, when the former princely state became a disputed territory, now administered by three countries: India, Pakistan, and the People's Republic of China. The word Kashmir is an ancient Sanskrit word which literally means Land of Kashyap Rishi. Kashyap Rishi was a Saraswat Brahmin and one of the Saptarshis, who was key in formalizing the ancient Historical Vedic Religion. The Kashmiri Pandits are his descendants and have named the valley after him, in his honour. According to the "Nilmat Puran," the oldest book on Kashmir, in the Satisar, a former lake in the Kashmir Valley meaning "lake of the Goddess Sati," lived a demon called Jalodbhava (meaning "born of water"), who tortured and devoured the people, who lived near mountain slopes.Hearing the suffering of the people, Kashyap, a Saraswat Brahmin, came to the rescue of the people that lived there.After performing penance for a long time, the saint was blessed, and therefore Lord Vishnu assumed the form of a boar and struck the mountain at Varahamula, boring an opening in it for the water to flow out into the plains below.The lake was drained, the land appeared, and the demon was killed.The saint encouraged people from India to settle in the valley.As a result of the hero's actions, the people named the valley as "Kashyap-Mar", meaning abode of Kashyap, and "Kashyap-Pura", meaning city of Kashyap, in Sanskrit.The name "Kashmir," in Sanskrit, implies land desiccated from water: "ka" (the water) and shimeera (to desiccate).The ancient Greeks began referring to the region as "Kasperia" and the Chinese pilgrim Hien-Tsang who visited the valley around 631 AD. called it "KaShi-Mi-Lo" . In modern times the people of Kashmir have shortened the full Sanskrit name into "Kasheer," which is the colloquial Koshur name of the valley, as noted in Aurel Stein's introduction to the Rajatarangini metrical chronicle. The "Rajatarangini," a history of Kashmir written by Kalhana in the 12th century, concurs with Nilmat Puran, stating that the valley of Kashmir was formerly a lake. This lake was drained by the great rishi or sage, Kashyap, son of Marichi, son of Brahma, by cutting the gap in the hills at Baramulla (Varaha-mula). Cashmere is a variant spelling of Kashmir, especially within the English language.[6] Kashmir — a beautiful mountain state with clear rivers, evergreen forests and one of the highest death rates in the world. It is at the center of an age-old dispute between Pakistan and India that has dragged on from the independence of both nations over fifty years ago to the present time, with no resolution in sight. The combined population of the two nation totals over a billion, so no conflict between them is of passing importance, especially when nuclear weapons are involved. Pakistan and India share a common heritage, language, and traditions, yet the subject of Kashmir can push them to the brink of annihilation. Kashmir by culture, language and ethnicity is closer to Central Asia. Jammu and Ghulam Kashmir(POK) are South Asian in culture, but unlike these two districts, Kashmir on the other hand, has had centuries of influence from Central Asia. Owing to the several climatic conditions during winter people here lead a nomadic life with their cattles. It was also during the reign of Kashyapa that the various wandering groups led a settled life Buddhism influenced Kashmir during the rule of Ashoka and the present town of Srinagar was founded by him. This place was earlier called 'Srinagari' or Purandhisthan. The Brahmins who inhabited these areas admired and adorned Buddhism too. From the regions of Kashmir Buddhism spread of Ladakh, Tibet, Central Asia and China. Various traditions co-existed till the advent of the Muslims. The Mughal had a deep influence on this land and introduced various reforms in the revenue industry and other areas that added to the progress of Kashmir. In 1820 Maharaj Gulab Singh got the Jagir of Jammu from Maharaj Ranjit Sigh. He is said to have laid the foundation of the Dogra dynasty. In 1846, Kashmir Province come under Dogra Empire of His Highness Maharaja Gulab Singh. Thus the areas of Jammu, Gilgit, Baltistan, Ladakh and Kashmir were integrated into a single political unit. A few chieftains who formed part of the administration were of the Hunza, Kishtwar, Gilgit Ladakh. During the Dogra dynasty trade improved, along with the preservation and promotion of forestry. Art and crafts also developed through encouragement. After, independence of India in 1947, Jammu & Kashmir joines Indian Union and is an integral region of India; that contributed its part to preserve the unity and integrity of India.

The state of Jammu & Kashmir has an area of 2,22,236 sq. km. and a population of 10.14 million. There are 22 districts, 107 blocks and 6652 villages. The State has population density of 45 per sq. km. (as against the national average of 312). The decadal growth rate of the state is 31.42% (against 21.54% for the country) and the population of the state continues to grow at a much faster rate than the national rate.

 


 

 
 
Mr. Syed Mohd Altaf Bukhari
Hon'ble Minister for Education
Smt. Priya Sethi Hon'ble Minister for State for Education,
Culture,Tourism,Department of Horticulture,Floriculture and Parks
Mr.Farooq Ahmed Shah,IAS
Secretary to Government
 

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