2.1. In the context of Universalisation of Secondary Education (USE), large-scale inputs in terms of additional schools, additional classrooms, teachers and other facilities need to be provided to meet the challenge of numbers, credibility and quality. It inter-alia requires assessment/ provision of educational needs, physical infrastructure, human resource, academic inputs and effective monitoring of implementation of the programmes. The scheme will initially cover upto class X. Subsequently, the higher secondary stage will also be taken up, preferably within two years of the implementation. The strategy for universalizing access to secondary education and improving its quality are as under:

There is a wide disparity in schooling facilities in different regions of the country. There are disparities among the private schools and between private and government schools. For providing universal access to quality secondary education, it is imperative that specially designed broad norms are developed at the national level and provision may be made for each State/UT keeping in mind the geographical, socio-cultural, linguistic and demographic condition of not just the State/UT but also, wherever necessary, of the locality. The norms for secondary schools should be generally comparable to those of Kendriya Vidyalayas. Development of the infrastructure facilities and Learning Resources will be carried out in following ways,

a. Expansion/ Strategy of existing Secondary Schools & Higher Secondary Schools shift in existing schools.

b. Up gradation of Upper Primary Schools based on micro planning exercise with all necessary infrastructure facilities and teachers. Ashram Schools will be given preference while upgrading upper primary schools.

c. Up gradation of Secondary Schools in Higher Secondary Schools based upon the requirements.

d. Opening of new Secondary Schools/ Higher Secondary Schools in unserved areas bas on the school mapping exercise. All these buildings will have mandatory water harvesting system and will be disabled friendly.

e. Rain harvesting systems will be installed in existing school buildings also.

f. Existing school buildings will also be made disabled friendly.

g. New schools will also be set up in PPP mode.

2.1.2. Quality
a. Providing required infrastructure like, Black Board, furniture, Libraries, Science & Mathematics laboratories, computer labs, toilet cluster.

b.Appointment of additional teachers and in-service training of teachers.

c.Bridge course for enhancing learning ability for students passing out of class VIII.

d. Reviewing curriculum to meet the NCF, 2005 norms.

e. Residential accommodation for teachers in rural and difficult hilly areas. Preference will be given to accommodation for female teachers.


a. Free lodging/ boarding facilities for students belonging to SC,ST,OBC and minority communities

b. Hostels/ residential schools, cash incentive, uniform, books, separate toilets for girls.

c. Providing scholarships to meritorious/ needy students at secondary level.

d. Inclusive education will be the hallmark of all the activities. Efforts will be made to provide all necessary facilities for the differently abled children in all the schools.

e. Expansion of Open and Distance Learning needs to be undertaken, especially for those who cannot pursue full time secondary education, and for supplementation / enrichment of face-to-face instruction. This system will also play a crucial role for education of out of school children.

2.1.4. Institutional Reforms and Strengthening of Resource Institutions
Making necessary administrative reforms in each State will be a precondition for Central assistance. These Institutional reforms include,

a. Reforms in school governance- Improve schools’ performance by decentralizing their management and accountability.

b. Adopting a rational policy of teacher recruitment, deployment, training, remuneration and career advancement;

c. Undertaking reforms in educational administration including modernization / e-governance and delegation / de-centralization;

d. Provision of necessary professional and academic inputs in the secondary education system at all levels, i.e., from the school level upwards; and

e. Streamlining financial procedures for speedy flow of funds and their optimal utilization.

f. Necessary strengthening of resource institutions at, various levels, e.g.,

1. NCERT (including RIEs), NIEPA and NIOS, at the national level;

2. SCERTs, State Open Schools, SIEMATs, etc., at the State level; and

3. University Departments of Education, Reputed Institutions of Science / Social Science / Humanities Education, and Colleges of Teacher Education (CTEs) / Institutions of Advanced Study in Education (IASEs) funded under the Centrally-sponsored Scheme of Teacher Education.

2.1.5. Involvement of Panchayati Raj and Municipal Bodies, Community,
Teachers, Parents and other stakeholders in the management of Secondary Education, through bodies like School Management Committees and Parent – Teacher Associations will be ensured in planning process, implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

2.1.6. Central Government operates four Centrally Sponsored Schemes i.e.

(i) ICT@ schools for providing assistance to State Governments for computer education and computer aided education in secondary and higher secondary schools.

(ii) Integrated Education for Disabled Children (IEDC) for assisting State Governments and NGOs in main streaming the disabled children in school education.

(iii) Strengthening of Boarding and Hostel facilities for Girl Students of Secondary and Higher Secondary Schools (Access and Equity) for providing assistance to NGOs to run Girls’ Hostels in the rural areas, and

(iv) Quality improvement in schools which included provision of assistance to State Governments for introduction of Yoga, for improvement of Science education in schools, for environment education and for population education in addition to supporting International Science Olympiads. All these schemes, in the present or modified forms, will subsume in the new Scheme.

(v) provision for earning while learning for financially weaker children by preparing them for self employment or part-time employment. States/UTs may establish vocational training centers (VTC) and institutions at the block, district levels.

2.1.7. Number of Kendriya Vidyalayas and Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas will be increased in view of their importance as pace-setting schools, and strengthening their role.



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